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Anonymous, World Canonical Texts [2007]

    215 entries: 201 monographical, 14 otherwise

    The web site World Canonical Texts originally presented a list of 36 works, plus lists of 16 and four derived from those 36; then presented a list of 150, from which lists of 100, 50, 25, and 12 were derived. However, not all of the works on those shorter lists are in the 150 and 36 tallies; each list is meant to stand on its own as representative of the world's major religious and philosophical movements, thus making substitutions necessary at times. Also, the entries in the list of 36 do not always take the same form in the list of 150; for example, the list of 150 has Plato's complete works, while the 36 only has The Republic.

    Despite this complex set-up, this site makes an extraordinary contribution to the literature of book lists/ canons/ reading plans. Far more so than the Norwegian Book Club's World Library, these lists, especially when combined into a single list as I have done here, offer the only "great books" list not dominated by the West. By focusing on religious and philosophical texts, the anonymous author (who tells us little about himself, most important perhaps that he's Chinese) effectively offers a path to understanding the Christian, Islamic, Classical Chinese, Buddhist, and Hindu traditions in their literary manifestations. Perhaps only a list emphasizing poetry could be as truly global. In contrast, most of the lists we've seen emphasize fiction, namely the novel (the major exception being Seymour-Smiths's, and to a lesser extent Eliot's, Adler's, Van Doren's and the Great Books of the Western World lists, all of which nonetheless are Western-dominated).

    This anonymous listmaker only ranks the works in the sense that those works in the shorter lists are presumably more representative and perhaps more significant (the creator of the site is not always clear on this point). I got the order in which they're presenting here by starting with the shortest list, so that the first-fourth here constitute the list of 4 at the site; they are followed by the works in the list of 12 not already included in the list of 4, the works in the list of 16 not already included in the lists of 4 or 12, and so on.

    • Plato

    early Fourth Century B C—Greek
    *Lubbock* *Baldwin* *Durant* *Hundred* *France* *Read* *Magill* *Bloom* *Kanigel* *World*

  1. Vyasa

  2. Mahabharata_13
    includes Bhagavad Gita; ca. Ninth Century B C-Fourth Century—Sanskrit
    *Lubbock* *Baldwin* *Rexroth* *Oriental* *Magill* *Bloom* *Fadiman* *Utne* *Norway* *Great* *GlobeMail* *World* *Graphic*

  3. Simǎ Qiān

  4. Shǐjì_4
    The Records of the Grand Historian
    written 109-91 B.C—Chinese

    *Ward* *Oriental* *Fadiman* *World*

  5. Quran_11

  6. Koran
    Seventh Century—Arabic

    *Downs* *Ward* *Oriental* *Good* *Bloom* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Great* *GlobeMail* *Taylor* *World*

  7. Herodotus

  8. Historiē_25
    Fifth Century B.C—Greek

    *Lubbock* *Baldwin* *Durant* *Invitation* *Classics* *Hundred* *Downs* *Rexroth* *Read* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Bloom* *Fadiman* *Kanigel* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Great* *GlobeMail* *Taylor* *Telegraph* *Harvard* *World* *Educated*

  9. Samyutta Nikaya_1

  10. third of five nikayas in the Sutta Pitaka—Pali

  11. The Bible_17

  12. Downs also lists John Wycliffe's 1382 English translation of the Vulgate; Bloom, Dirda, and the Globe and Mail specify the King James Version, translated 1604-11 to English from the Hebrew and Aramaic (Old Testament) and the Greek (New Testament), revised 1769 by Benjamin Blayney—Hebrew; Aramaic; Greek
    *Lubbock* *Baldwin* *Hundred* *France* *Downs* *Read* *Ward* *Good* *Bloom* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Dirda* *Guardian* *Zane* *GlobeMail* *Taylor* *World*

    • Wen Xuan_1

    Selections of Refined Literature


  13. Adi Shankara

  14. Brahmasutra Bhasya_2
    Commentary on the Brahma Sutra
    ca. early Ninth Century—Sanskrit

    *Oriental* *World*

  15. Al-Ghazali

  16. Ihya Ulum al-Din_2
    The Revival of Religious Sciences
    Eleventh-early Twelfth centuries—Arabic

    *Ward* *World*

  17. Zhū Xī (Chu Hsi)

  18. Sìshū Zhāngju Jízhù_1
    Commentaries on the Four Books
    Twelfth Century—Chinese


  19. Confucius (Kǒng Zǐ) (Kǒng Fūzǐ) (K'ung Fu-tzu)

  20. Analects_12
    Lún Yǔ
    written and compiled by the author's pupils; ca. Fifth Century B C-Second Century—Chinese

    *Lubbock* *Eliot* *Downs* *Ward* *Oriental* *Good* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Great* *Taylor* *World* *Graphic*

  21. Mèng Zǐ (Mencius) (Meng Tzu)

  22. Mèng Zǐ_5
    Mencius; Meng Tzu
    Fourth Century B.C—Chinese

    *Ward* *Oriental* *Fadiman* *Great* *World*

  23. Liǐjì_1

  24. The Classic of Rites; The Book of Rites
    one of the Five Classics of Confucianism; includes The Doctrine of the Mean and the Great Learning; ca. Eleventh-Third centuries B.C—Chinese


    William Shakespeare
    • Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, and Tragedies_3

    The First Folio
    1623; includes 36 of the author's plays—English

    *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World*

  25. The Two Gentlemen of Verona_7

  26. ca. 1590-94—English
    *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  27. Romeo and Juliet_12

  28. ca. 1591-97—English
    *Durant* *Classics* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Campbell* *Zane* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  29. The First Part of Henry VI_5

  30. ca. 1592—English
    *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  31. The Second Part of Henry VI_5

  32. ca. 1592—English
    *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  33. The Third Part of Henry VI_5

  34. ca. 1592—English
    *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  35. The Taming of the Shrew_9

  36. ca. 1592-94—English
    *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Campbell* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  37. Richard III_11

  38. ca. 1592-7—English
    *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Campbell* *Great* *Taylor* *World* *Newman* *Educated*

  39. Titus Andronicus_5

  40. 1594—English
    *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  41. The Comedy of Errors_8

  42. 1594—English
    *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  43. A Midsummer Night's Dream_14

  44. ca. 1595-1600—English
    *Durant* *Hundred* *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Campbell* *Taylor* *World* *Newman* *Graphic* *Educated*

  45. The Merchant of Venice_11

  46. ca. 1596-98—English
    *Durant* *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Campbell* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  47. The Merry Wives of Windsor_6

  48. ca. 1597-1602—English
    *Ward* *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  49. The First Part of Henry IV_13

  50. 1597—English
    *Durant* *Classics* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Campbell* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  51. Richard II_9

  52. 1597—English
    *Classics* *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  53. Love's Labour Lost_6

  54. 1598—English
    *Ward* *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  55. King John_4

  56. ca. 1598—English
    *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World*

  57. Much Ado About Nothing_10

  58. ca. 1598-99—English
    *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *Reynolds* *World* *Newman*

  59. Julius Caesar_9

  60. 1599—English
    *Durant* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Campbell* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  61. Henry V_9

  62. 1599—English
    *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *O'Hear* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  63. The Second Part of Henry IV_12

  64. 1600—English
    *Durant* *Classics* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  65. Twelfth Night; or, What You Will_10

  66. 1602—English
    *Classics* *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Campbell* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  67. Hamlet_27

  68. 1602—English
    *Eliot* *Durant* *Invitation* *Classics* *Hundred* *Downs* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *Foundation* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Campbell* *Norway* *Great* *Guardian* *O'Hear* *Zane* *Taylor* *Harvard* *World* *Newman* *Graphic* *Educated*

  69. Troilus and Cressida_7

  70. ca. 1602-09—English
    *Ward* *Adler* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  71. As You Like It_12

  72. 1603—English
    *Durant* *Hundred* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Campbell* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  73. Measure for Measure_10

  74. 1604—English
    *Classics* *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  75. Othello_14

  76. ca. 1604—English
    *Durant* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *Foundation* *SeymourSmith* *Campbell* *Norway* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  77. Coriolanus_8

  78. written ca. 1605-08—English
    *Classics* *Ward* *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Utne* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  79. King Lear_21

  80. 1606—English
    *Eliot* *Durant* *Classics* *Hundred* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *Foundation* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Campbell* *Norway* *Zane* *GlobeMail* *Taylor* *World* *Newman* *Graphic*

  81. All's Well That Ends Well_8

  82. ca. 1606-08—English
    *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  83. Macbeth_16

  84. ca. 1607—English
    *Eliot* *Durant* *Classics* *Hundred* *Rexroth* *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Campbell* *Zane* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  85. Timon of Athens_7

  86. written ca. 1607—English
    *Durant* *Ward* *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  87. The Tempest_20

  88. 1611—English
    *Eliot* *Durant* *Classics* *Rexroth* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *Foundation* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Campbell* *Great* *O'Hear* *Zane* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  89. The Winter's Tale_9

  90. ca. 1611—English
    *Classics* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  91. Henry VIII_5

  92. ca. 1613—English
    *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  93. Antony and Cleopatra_13

  94. ca. 1606-08—English
    *Invitation* *Classics* *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *Foundation* *SeymourSmith* *Zane* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  95. Cymbeline_6

  96. written ca. 1609—English
    *Van Doren* *Adler* *SeymourSmith* *Taylor* *World* *Newman*

  97. Immanuel Kant

  98. Kritik der Reinen Vernunft_12
    Critique of Pure Reason
    1781; revised 1787—German

    *Classics* *Read* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Good* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *GlobeMail* *World*

  99. Nagarjuna

  100. Mulamadhyamakakarika_1
    Fundamental Verses on the Middle Way
    ca. 150-250—Sanskrit


  101. Plato

  102. Politeia_24
    The Republic
    early Fourth Century B.C—Greek

    *Classics* *Downs* *Rexroth* *Zulli* *Read* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Good* *Learning* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *Foundation* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Campbell* *Great* *GlobeMail* *Taylor* *Reynolds* *World* *Deposit* *Educated*

  103. Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro)

  104. Aeneid_26
    First Century B C; Mallison ("Smart") specifies Dudley Fitts and Robert Fagles's English translation—Latin
    *Baldwin* *Eliot* *Classics* *France* *Downs* *Rexroth* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Good* *Bloom* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Campbell* *Norway* *Great* *O'Hear* *Zane* *Smart* *Reynolds* *World* *Newman* *Graphic*

  105. Yì Jīng_2

  106. I Ching; Zhouyi; The Classic of Changes; The Book of Changes
    one of the Five Classics of Confucianism; Eleventh-Third centuries B.C—Chinese

    *SeymourSmith* *World*

  107. Lǎozǐ (Lao-tzu) (Laocius)

  108. Dàodéjīng_11
    Tao te Ching
    ca. Sixth Century B.C—Chinese

    *Rexroth* *Ward* *Oriental* *Good* *Recommended* *SeymourSmith* *Utne* *Dirda* *Great* *World* *Graphic*

  109. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari

  110. Tarikh al-Tabari_1
    The History of the Prophets and Kings
    early Tenth Century—Arabic


  111. Avicenna

  112. Kitab al-Shifa_1
    The Book of Healing


  113. Rumi

  114. Masnavi-l Ma'navi_4
    written ca. 1258-73—Persian

    *Ward* *Oriental* *Norway* *World*

  115. Abhijnanasakuntalam_6

  116. The Recognition of Sakuntala
    ca. Fifth Century—Sanskrit

    *Lubbock* *Ward* *Oriental* *Fadiman* *Norway* *World*

  117. Meghaduta_4

  118. The Cloud Messenger
    ca. Fifth Century—Sanskrit

    *Oriental* *Fadiman* *Great* *World*

  119. Kumarasambhava_1

  120. The Birth of Kumara
    ca. Fifth Century—Sanskrit


  121. Augustine of Hippo

  122. De Trinitate_2
    On the Trinity
    early Fourth Century—Latin

    *Classics* *World*

  123. Zhì Yǐ (Chih-I)

  124. Fáhuá Xuányì_1
    Profound Meaning of the Lotus Sutra
    Sixth Century—Chinese


  125. Ferdowsi

  126. Shahnameh_7
    The Book of Kings
    written ca. 977-1010—Persian

    *Lubbock* *Ward* *Oriental* *Fadiman* *Dirda* *Great* *World*

  127. Ramanuja

  128. Gita Bhashya_1
    Commentary on the Bhagavad Gita
    ca. Eleventh Century—Sanskrit


  129. Dante

  130. La Divina Commedia_33
    The Divine Comedy
    originally entitled La Commedia; written ca. 1308-21—Italian

    *Lubbock* *Baldwin* *Eliot* *Powys* *Durant* *Invitation* *Classics* *France* *Downs* *Zulli* *Read* *List* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Good* *Bloom* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Norway* *Great* *O'Hear* *Zane* *GlobeMail* *Telegraph* *Harvard* *Reynolds* *World* *Newman* *Graphic*

    Amir Khusrow
  131. Ghurratul-Kamaal_1

  132. The Prime of Perfection
    Thirteenth-early Fourteenth centuries—Persian


  133. Noh Sepehr_1

  134. Mathnavi of the Nine Skies
    Thirteenth-early Fourteenth centuries—Persian


  135. Ishqia_1

  136. Ashiqe; Mathnavi Duval Rani-Khizr Khan; Romance of Duval Rani and Khizr Khan
    Thirteenth-early Fourteenth centuries—Persian


  137. René Descartes

  138. Meditationes de Prima Philosophia, in Qua Dei Existentia et Animae Immortalitas Demonstratur_6
    Meditations on First Philosophy
    1641; French version, Meéeditations Metaphysiques, 1647—Latin

    *Classics* *Read* *Adler* *Reynolds* *World* *Educated*

  139. Edward Gibbon

  140. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire_23
    originally published in six volumes: first, 1776; second-third, 1781; fourth-sixth, 1788—English
    *Lubbock* *Baldwin* *Durant* *Invitation* *Hundred* *Downs* *Rexroth* *Read* *List* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Good* *Bloom* *Foundation* *Kanigel* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Dirda* *Telegraph* *World* *Educated*

  141. Rigveda_3

  142. Sanskrit
    *Oriental* *Great* *World*

  143. Homer

  144. Iliad_33
    ca. Ninth-Eighth centuries B.C; Cowan and Guinness ("Trinity") specifiy Richard Lattimore's English translation; Mallison ("Smart") notes Derek Jacobi's modern aural version—Greek
    *Lubbock* *Baldwin* *Classics* *France* *Downs* *Rexroth* *Zulli* *Read* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Good* *Bloom* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *Foundation* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Campbell* *Norway* *Great* *O'Hear* *Zane* *GlobeMail* *Smart* *Taylor* *Telegraph* *World* *Deposit* *Newman* *Graphic* *Educated*

  145. Aristotle

  146. Metaphysics_3
    Fourth Century B C—Greek
    *Read* *Adler* *World*

  147. Manusmrti_1

  148. Laws of Manu; Manava Dharmasastra
    ca. Fifth Century B.C—Sanskrit


  149. Eusebius

  150. Historia Ecclesiae_1
    Fourth Century—Latin

  151. Zhì Yǐ (Chih-I)

  152. Commentaries on the Vimalakirti Sutra_1
    Sixth Century—Chinese

  153. Koǒng Yǐngdá

  154. Wujīng Zhèngyì_1
    Correct Meanings of the Five Classics


  155. Shījīng_4

  156. Shih-Ching; The Classic of Poetry; The Book of Poetry; The Book of Songs; The Book of Odes
    one of the Five Classics of Confucianism; Eleventh-Seventh centuries B.C—Chinese

    *Lubbock* *Ward* *Oriental* *World*

  157. Xuánzàng (Hsuan-tang)

  158. Dà Táng Xiyù Jì_1
    Ta T'ang Hsiyü Chi; The Great Tang Records of the Western Religions
    written 626-46; compiled by Biànjī—Chinese


  159. Chéng Xuányīng

  160. Zhuāngzī Zhúshū_1
    Commentary on Zhuāngzī
    Seventh Century—Chinese


    • Three Hundred Tang Poems_2

    compiled by Sun Zhu ca. 1763—Chinese
    *Oriental* *World*

  161. Shì Dàoyuán_1

  162. Jǐngdé Chuándēnglù
    The Transmission of the Lamp
    ca. 1004-07—Chinese


  163. Simǎ Guāng

  164. Zīzhì Tōngjiàn_1
    The Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government


  165. Cáo Xuěqín (Mengruan) (Ts'ao Hsueh-ch'in)

  166. Hóng Lóu Mèng_7
    The Dream of the Red Chamber; The Story of the Stone

    *Rexroth* *Ward* *Magill* *Oriental* *Fadiman* *Great* *World*

  167. Karl Marx

  168. Das Kapital, Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie_12
    originally published in three volumes: 1867, 1885, and 1894—German
    *Hundred* *France* *Downs* *Rexroth* *Read* *Ward* *Magill* *Adler* *Good* *GlobeMail* *Telegraph* *World*

    • Plato

    Complete works_1
    early Fourth Centur B C—Greek

  169. Xúnzǐ (Hsün-tzu)

  170. Xúnzǐ_3
    Third Century B.C—Chinese

    *Ward* *Oriental* *World*

  171. Valmiki

  172. Ramayana_10
    ca. Fifth-Second centuries B C—Sanskrit
    *Lubbock* *Baldwin* *Ward* *Oriental* *Magill* *Bloom* *Fadiman* *Norway* *Great* *World*

  173. Umaswati

  174. Tattvartha Sutra_1
    ca. Second Century B.C—Sanskrit


  175. Muallaqat_3

  176. The Seven Odes
    compiled Eighth Century—Arabic

    *Ward* *Oriental* *World*

  177. Manikkavacakar

  178. Tiruvacakam_1
    Ninth Century—Tamil

  179. Murasaki Shikibu

  180. Genji Monogatari_12
    The Tale of Genji
    ca. early Eleventh Century; Mallison ("Smart") specifies Royall Tyler's English translation—Japanese

    *Rexroth* *Ward* *Oriental* *Magill* *Fadiman* *Utne* *Norway* *Great* *GlobeMail* *Smart* *World* *Graphic*

  181. Ibn Arabi

  182. Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya_1
    The Meccan Illuminations
    ca. 636—Arabic


  183. John Calvin

  184. Christianae Religionis Institutio_7
    Institutes of the Christian Religion
    1536; French translation, Institution de la Religion Chrestienne, 1541—Latin

    *Classics* *Downs* *Read* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Reynolds* *World*

  185. Abul Fazl

  186. Akbarnama_1
    The Book of Akbar
    written 1590-96—Persian


  187. Miguel de Cervantes

  188. El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha_36
    Don Quixote
    originally published in two volumes, 1605 and 1615; Mallison ("Smart") specifies Edith Grossman's English translation—Spanish

    *Lubbock* *Baldwin* *Powys* *Invitation* *Classics* *Hundred* *France* *Downs* *Rexroth* *Zulli* *Read* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Adler* *Good* *Learning* *Bloom* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Campbell* *Norway* *Great* *O'Hear* *Zane* *GlobeMail* *Smart* *Taylor* *Reynolds* *World* *Deposit* *Newman* *Graphic* *Educated*

  189. René Descartes

  190. Discours de la Méthode Pour Bien Conduire sa Raison, et Chercher la Vérité dans les Sciences_17
    Discourse on the Method

    *Lubbock* *Eliot* *Invitation* *Classics* *Hundred* *France* *Downs* *Read* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Adler* *Good* *Fadiman* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *Great* *World*

  191. John Locke

  192. Two Treatises of Government: In the Former, the False Principles, and Foundation of Sir Robert Filmer, and His Followers, Are Detected and Overthrown. The Latter Is an Essay Concerning the True Original, Extent, and End of Civil Government_4
    originally anonymously published 1689—English
    *Classics* *Downs* *Trinity* *World*

  193. Jane Austen

  194. Pride and Prejudice_30
    originally anonymously published 1813—English
    *Eliot* *Powys* *Hundred* *Zulli* *Read* *Ward* *Van Doren* *Magill* *Good* *Learning* *Bloom* *Recommended* *Fadiman* *Kanigel* *Trinity* *Campbell* *Norway* *Great* *Guardian* *Zane* *GlobeMail* *Taylor* *Telegraph* *Harvard* *Reynolds* *World* *Deposit* *Newman* *Graphic* *Educated*

  195. Fyodor Dostoevsky

  196. Brat'â Karamazovy_23
    The Brothers Karamazov
    originally published serially 1880 in Rússkij Véstnik—Russian

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  197. Guō Xiàng (Kuo Hsiang)

  198. Zhuāngzī Zhù_1
    Commentary on Zhuāngzī
    Third Century—Chinese


  199. Zhuāngzī (Zhuāng Zhōu) (Chuang-tzu)

  200. Zhuāngzī_5
    Nánhuá Zhēnjīng
    ca. Third Century B.C—Chinese

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  201. Antigone_22

  202. ca. 441 B C—Greek
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  203. Oidipous epi Kolōnō_20

  204. Oedipus at Colonus
    401 B C—Greek

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  205. Oidipous Tyrannos_25

  206. Oedipus Rex; Oedipus the King
    ca. 429 B.C; Mallison ("Smart") specifies Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald's English translation—Greek

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  207. Thucydides

  208. History of the Peloponnesian War_23
    early Fifth Century B.C—Greek
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  209. Mòzǐ (Mo Tzu)

  210. Mòzǐ_3
    Mo Tzu
    ca. Fifth Century B.C—Chinese

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  211. Dǒng Zhòngshū

  212. Chūnqiū Fánlù_1
    The Luxuriant Dew of the Spring and Autumn Annals
    Second Century—Chinese


  213. Kautilya (Chanakya) (Vishnu Gupta)

  214. Arthshastra_2
    Fourth-Third centuries B C—Sanskrit
    *Ward* *World*

  215. Ovid

  216. Metamorphoseon_14
    8; Mallison ("Smart") specifies Charles Martin's English translation—Latin

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  217. Livy (Titus Livius)

  218. Ab Urbe Condita Libri_6
    History of Rome
    First Century B C—Latin

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  219. Asvaghosa

  220. Buddhacarita_1
    Acts of the Buddha
    early Second Century—Sanskrit


  221. Vimalakirti Sutra_2

  222. Sanskrit
    *Oriental* *World*

  223. Origen

  224. De Principiis_1
    On First Principles
    Third Century—Greek


  225. Patanjali

  226. Yoga Sutras_3
    ca. Second Century B C—Sanskrit
    *Ward* *Oriental* *World*

  227. Panchatantra_3

  228. Pancatranta
    attributed to Vishnu Sharma; ca. Third Century B.C—Sanskrit

    *Ward* *Oriental* *World*

  229. Gě Hóng

  230. Bàopǔzǐ_1
    Bàopòzǐ; The Master Embracing Simplicity
    ca. 317-18—Chinese


  231. Liú Yìqìng (Liu I-ching)

  232. Shìshuì Xīnyǔ_1
    Shih-shuo Hsin-yu; A New Account of the Tales of the World
    Fifth Century—Chinese


  233. Hala

  234. Gaha Sattasai_1
    early First Century—Sanskrit

  235. Mahavamsa_1

  236. The Great Chronicle
    written ca. Third Century B.C-Fifth Century—Pali


    • Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite

    Complete works_1
    late Fifth-early Sixth centuries—Greek

  237. Wonhyo

  238. Dacheng Qixinlun Shuji_1
    Commentary on Awakening of Faith
    Seventh Century—Korean


  239. Mahayana Sraddhotpada Sastra_2

  240. Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana
    Sanskrit original attributed to Asvaghosa not exant—Chinese

    *Oriental* *World*

  241. Dù Yòu

  242. Tōngdiǎn_1
    late Eighth-early Ninth centuries—Chinese

    • Abu Nuwas

    late Eighth-early Ninth centuries—Arabic

  243. Muhammad al-Bukhari

  244. Sahih al-Bukhari_2
    Ninth Century—Arabic
    *Ward* *World*

  245. Udayana (Udyanacharya)

  246. Nyaya-kusumanjali_1
    Tenth Century—Sanskrit

  247. Ali Hujwiri

  248. Kashf Al Mahjub_1
    Revelation of the Veiled
    Eleventh Century—Persian


  249. Al-Hariri of Basra

  250. Maqamat al-Hariri_3
    Eleventh Century—Arabic
    *Ward* *Oriental* *World*

  251. Wáng Chóngyáng (Wang Zhe)

  252. Wáng Chóngyáng Quánzhēn Jí_1
    Anthology of Complete Perfection
    Twelfth Century—Chinese


  253. Maimonides (Moshe ben Maimon)

  254. Dalalatul al-Hairin_3
    Moreh Nevukhim; The Guide for the Perplexed
    written Twelfth Century; Hebrew version published 1204—Arabic

    *Ward* *SeymourSmith* *World*

  255. Jayadeva

  256. Gita Govinda_3
    Song of Govinda
    ca. 1200—Sanskrit

    *Ward* *Oriental* *World*

  257. Shinran

  258. Kyogyoshinsho_1
    written ca. 1224—Japanese

    • Huang Sheng

    Hua'an Cixuan_1
    poetry anthology; Thirteenth Century—Chinese

  259. Thomas Aquinas

  260. Summa Theologiae_12
    Summa Theologica
    written 1265-74—Latin

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  261. Rashid-al-Din Hamadani

  262. Jami al-Tawarikh_1
    The Compendium of Chronicles
    Universal History
    early Fourteenth Century—Persian


  263. Gregory Palamas

  264. Triads for the Defense of Those Who Practice Sacred Quietude_1
    Fourteenth Century—Greek

    • Hafez

    Fourteenth Century—Persian
    *Ward* *World*

  265. Geoffrey Chaucer

  266. Canterbury Tales_30
    1478; Mallison ("Smart") specifies Nevill Coghill's modern English version—English
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  267. Tsongkhapa

  268. An Ocean of Reasoning_1
    late Fourteenth-early Fifteenth centuries—Tibetan

  269. Niccolò Machiavelli

  270. Il Principe_28
    The Prince

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    Martin Luther
  271. An den Christlichen Adel Deutscher Nation_5

  272. Address to the Christian Nobility

    *Eliot* *Classics* *Downs* *Read* *World*

  273. De Captivitate Babylonica Ecclesiae, Praeludium_5

  274. Von der Babylonischen Gefangenschaft der Kirche; On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church
    1520; German version published the same year—Latin

    *Classics* *Read* *SeymourSmith* *Trinity* *World*

  275. Von der Freiheit Eines Christenmenschen_4

  276. The Freedom of a Christian; A Treatise on Christian Liberty

    *Eliot* *Classics* *Read* *World*

  277. Yi Hwang

  278. Seonghak Sipdo_1
    The Ten Diagrams on Sage Learning


  279. Luís Vaz de Camões

  280. Os Lusíadas_3
    *Ward* *Bloom* *World*

  281. Michel de Montaigne

  282. Les Essais_26
    originally published in three volumes: 1580, 1588, and 1595—French

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  283. Guru Granth Sahib_2

  284. Adi Granth
    written ca. Fifteenth-Sixteenth centuries—Punjabi

    *Ward* *World*

  285. Mulla Sadra

  286. Al-Asfar_1
    The Transcendent Philosophy of the Four Journeys of the Intellect
    early Seventh Century—Arabic


  287. John Milton

  288. Paradise Lost_25
    1667; revised 1674—English
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  289. Huáng Zōngxī

  290. Míngrú Xué Àn_1
    The Scholarly Annals of Ming Confucians
    Seventeenth Century—Chinese


  291. Mustafa Naima

  292. Ravdatu 'l-Huseyn fi Hulasat-i Ahbari 'l-Hafiqayn_1
    Tarikh i-Naima; Annals of the Turkish Empire From 1591 to 1659 of the Christian Era


  293. Voltaire

  294. Essay sur l'Histoire Générale et sur les Moeurs et l'Esprit des Nations, Depuis Charlemagne Jusqu'à nos Jours_1

  295. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

  296. Faust_26
    originally published in two volumes: first, Faust. Der Tragödie Erster Teil, published in part, 1790; in its entirey, 1808; revised 1829; second, Faust. Der Tragödie Zweiter Teil, 1832—German
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  297. Adam Mickiewicz

  298. Pan Tadeusz, Czyli Ostatni Zajazd na Litwie. Historia Szlachecka z Roku 1811 i 1812 we Dwunastu Ksiegach Wierszem_2
    Sir Thaddeus, or the Last Lithuanian Foray: A Nobleman's Tale From the Years of 1811 and 1812 in Twelve Books of Verse

    *Ward* *World*

  299. John Stuart Mill

  300. On Liberty_16
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    • Ghalib

    Nineteenth Century—Hindustani; Persian
    *Ward* *World*

  301. Marcus Tullius Cicero

  302. De Officiis_4
    written 44 B C—Latin
    *Lubbock* *Baldwin* *Dirda* *World*

    • Sappho

    late Seventh-early Sixth centuries B C—Greek
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    • "Early Upanishads"_1

    Seventh-Fourth centuries B C—Sanskrit

  303. Hán Fēizi (Han Fei-tzu)

  304. Hán Fēizi_3
    Third Century B C—Chinese
    *Ward* *Oriental* *World*

  305. Diogenes Laërtius

  306. Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers_3
    Third Century—Greek
    *Durant* *Downs* *World*

  307. Plotinus

  308. Enneads_6
    Third Century—Greek
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  309. Avesta_3

  310. ca. Fourth Century B C; primary collection of Zoroastrian sacred texts—Avestan
    *Ward* *SeymourSmith* *World*

  311. Bhartrihari

  312. Satakatraya_3
    The Three Satakas
    ca. Fifth Century—Sanskrit

    *Ward* *Oriental* *World*

  313. Yogacarabhumi-sastra_1

  314. Discourse on the Stages of Yoga Practice
    Fourth Century B.C; attributed to Asanga—Sanskrit


  315. Buddhaghosa

  316. Visuddhimagga_2
    The Path of Purification; The Path of Purity; written ca. 430—Pali

  317. Táo Hóngjǐng

  318. Zhēngào_1
    The Declarations of the Perfected
    written ca. 516—Chinese


  319. Bede

  320. Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum_3
    written ca. 731—Latin
    *Downs* *Trinity* *World*

  321. John of Damascus

  322. The Foundation of Knowledge_1
    Eighth Century—Greek

  323. Al-Shafii

  324. Kitab al-Risala_1
    late Eighth-early Ninth centuries—Arabic

  325. Banabhatta

  326. Kadambari_1
    early Seventh Century; completed by the author's son, Bhusanabhatta—Sanskrit

  327. Bhagavata Purana_1

  328. Sanskrit

  329. Kukai

  330. Jujushinron_2
    Treatise on the Ten Stages of the Development of the Mind

    *Ward* *World*

  331. Al-Masudi

  332. Muruj adh-Dhahab wa Ma'adin al-Jawahir_1
    Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems
    Tenth Century—Arabic


  333. Nizam al-Mulk

  334. Siyasatnama_2
    Book of Government
    Eleventh Century—Persian

    *Ward* *World*

  335. Abhinavagupta

  336. Tantraloka_1
    late Tenth-early Eleventh centuries—Sanskrit

  337. Somadeva

  338. Katha-sarit-sagara_2
    Eleventh Century—Sanskrit
    *Ward* *World*

  339. Shào Yōng

  340. Huángjí Jīngshì_1
    Book of Supreme World Ordering Principles
    Eleventh Century—Chinese


    Chrétien de Troyes
  341. Érec et Énide_1

  342. written ca. 1170—French

  343. Lancelot, le Chevalier de la Charrette_2

  344. written ca. 1170—French
    *World* *Newman*

  345. Yvain, le Chevalier au Lion_3

  346. written ca. 1170—French
    *Bloom* *Dirda* *World*

  347. Cligès_1

  348. written ca. 1176—French

  349. Perceval, le Conte du Graal_2

  350. written 1181-91—French
    *World* *Newman*

  351. Petrarch (Francesco Petrarca)

  352. Rerum Vulgarium Fragmenta_3
    Il Canzoniere

    *Ward* *World* *Newman*

  353. Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi (Sohrevardi)

  354. Hikmat al-Ishraq_1
    Oriental Theosophy; The Philosophy of Illumination
    Twelfth Century—Arabic


  355. Ibn Khaldun

  356. Kitab al-Ibar_2
    Fourteenth Century—Arabic
    *Ward* *World*

  357. Saadi Shirazi

  358. Gullistan_3
    written 1258—Persian
    *Baldwin* *Ward* *World*

  359. Acharya Hemachandra

  360. Tri-shashthi-shalaka-purusha-charitra_1
    The Lives of Sixty-Three Great Men
    includes appendix, Parishista-parvan (The Lives of the Jain Elders); Twelfth Century—Sanskrit


  361. Kaviraja Suri

  362. Raghavapandaviya_1
    Twelfth Century—Sanskrit

  363. Wáng Chóngyáng (Wang Zhe)

  364. Wáng Chóngyáng Quánzhēn Jí_1
    Anthology of Complete Perfection
    Twelfth Century—Chinese


  365. Cantong Qi_1

  366. Kinship of the Three
    traditionally attributed to Wei Boyang; ca. Second Century B.—Chinese


  367. Yú Yǎn

  368. Zhōuyì Cāntóng Qì Fāhuī_1
    Elucidation of the Cantong Qi


  369. Wáng Shifǔ

  370. Xīxiāngji_1
    The Story of the Western Wing
    late Thirteenth Century—Chinese


  371. Shī Nài'ān

  372. Shuǐ Hŭ Zhuàn_5
    The Water Margin
    written Fourteenth Century—Chinese

    *Ward* *Oriental* *Great* *World* *Graphic*

  373. José de Acosta

  374. Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias_1

  375. Fuzuli

  376. Dastan-i Leyli vu Mecnun_3
    The Epic of Layla and Majnun
    Sixteenth Century—Turkish

    *Ward* *Oriental* *World*

  377. Gù Yánwǔ

  378. Rìzhīlù_1
    Seventeenth Century—Chinese

    • Basho Matsuo

    Selected works_1
    Seventeenth Century—Japanese

  379. Oku no Hosomichi_4

  380. The Narrow Road to the Deep North; late Seventeenth Century—Japanese
    *Ward* *Oriental* *Fadiman* *World*

  381. Victor Hugo

  382. Les Misérables_18
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  383. David Hume

  384. An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding_10
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    • William Wordsworth; Samuel Taylor Coleridge

    Lyrical Ballads, With a Few Other Poems_7
    1798; expanded 1800 and 1802—English
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  385. Walt Whitman

  386. Leaves of Grass_20
    1855; expanded and revised through ninth edition, 1892—English
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  387. William James

  388. Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking_8
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  389. Friedrich Schleiermacher

  390. Der Christliche Glaube Nach den Grundsätzen der Evangelischen Kirche_1
    The Christian Faith
    1821-22; revised 1830-31—German


  391. Jacob Burckhardt

  392. Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien_3
    The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy; 1860—German
    *Dirda* *World* *Educated*

  393. Friedrich Nietzsche

  394. Also Sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen_15
    Thus Spake Zarathustra
    originally published in four volumes, 1883-85—German

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  395. Leo Tolstoy

  396. Voyna i Mir"_24
    War and Peace
    originally entitled 1805, published in part, 1865 and 1867; retitled and published in its entirety, 1869—Russian

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  397. Vladimir Solovyov

  398. Lectures on Godmanhood_1
    edited 1878-81 lectures—Russian

  399. Shah Waliullah

  400. Hujjat Allah al-Baligha_1
    The Conclusive Argument From God
    Eighteenth Century—Arabic


  401. Bì Yuán

  402. Xù Zīzhì Tōngjiàn_1
    Continuation to Zizhì Tongjiàn
    late Eighteenth Century; completed by Féng Jíwú in 1801—Chinese